ULTRASOUND SCANNING

Diagnostic ultrasound scans for children and Adults
Ultrasound scanning is one of the most reliable diagnostic methods in modern medical practice, with many advantages:


  • It is a completely painless, fast and cost-effective method​
  • There is no use of ionizing or other radiation that could be harmful to the human body
  • It can be frequently repeated and consists a useful tool in the monitoring of the course of your health​​
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Ultrasounds are sound waves, of a very high frequency (over 20,000 Hz), which cannot be heard by the human ear. Special instruments record these sounds passing through the human body and thus we can examine the anatomy and the possible existence of pathological findings in all organs and also image tumors, nodules, cysts, calculi (stones), inflammatory foci, etc, in the human body.

Ultrasounds cannot pass through the air of through bones. The air in the abdomen does not permit to the ultrasounds to examine organs that lie behind the air mass. With the ultrasound scan it is possible to diagnose a high number of pathological conditions in children and adults, as well as to monitor their response to the administered treatment.
 
With the use of the Doppler and the color Triplex we can record the blood flow through the blood vessels (arteries and veins), and thus it is possible to find stenoses, occlusions, clots or other structural and functional disorders. Particularly for the carotid arteries, the control can contribute to the prevention of possible cerebral strokes.
The bone mass measurement with ultrasounds is a useful method, that is particularly cheap and easy, which can be applied for the initial osteoporosis screening in postmenopausal women. In women where a problem has been detected, it can be recommended subsequently to perform a DEXA scan, where the problem will be confirmed or not.
 
Elastorgraphy is essentially a new ultrasound technique, that allows the evaluation of the elasticity or hardness of the tissues that are examined during the ultrasound scanning process. A small pressure is applied to the skin at the point of the damage, as in the case of a palpation and the elasticity of the lesions and damages is mapped with different colors that allow its quantitative assessment. Elastography is used in breast, liver, thyroid, lymph node examinations.
Cancer presents in general a higher hardness, therefore elastography can provide the necessary information, so that biopsies are limited only to the ones that are absolutely necessary.
The ultrasound scan can give information about the precise place and composition of the lesion
Elastography informs us about the elasticity of the tissues. The ultrasound scan is a subjective examination and it is highly important that it is performed by well trained doctors that are experienced in this method and have a high knowledge of the diseases of the examined organs.

In our MEDICAL PRACTICE is performed, with knowledge and interest, a wide range of ultrasound scans of various organs and vessels of the human body. The examined person must be aware that for some of these examinations a special preparation is required before the examination. For more information, please contact us at the phone number 23100 292 99.

Ultrasound Scan of the Upper Abdomen
The organs we examine are the liver, gall bladder, pancreas, kidneys, spleen, retroperitoneal space, intestine and the walls of the abdomen (with the high frequency heads).

Liver

Fatty infiltration, cysts, hemangiomas, abscesses, primary and metastatic tumors. Contribution in the detection of liver cirrhosis.

Gall Bladder

Cholecystitis, calculi, gall bladder polyps.

Pancreas

Pancreatitis, primary tumors (with the exception of obese patients)

Kidneys

Cysts, renal pelvic system lithiasis, primary tumors, renal insufficiency, pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis.

Spleen

Splenomegaly (diseases of the blood, portal hypertension, infectious mononucleosis).

Retroperitoneal space

Aortic aneurysm, enlarged lymph nodes, adrenal gland lesions (over 2cm). The retroperitoneal space can be difficultly examined with ultrasounds, in obese patients or in case of presence of a large air quantity in the intestine of the examined person.

Intestine

Ascitic fluid, intestine inflammations (appendicitis or diverticulitis), diverticulitis, large sized primary tumors of the intestine (with high reliability in thin persons)

Abdominal walls

Hernias (umbilical hernia, inguinal hernia, Spiegel) muscle hematomas, lipomas of subcutaneous tissue. Finally, with the patient in standing position we can detect the presence of fluid in the pleural cavities.

Preparation of the patient

You must not have eaten for at least six hours before the examination. It is good that you avoid, on the previous day, foods with cellulose, such as herbs, leguminous vegetables, vegetables and fruit, as well as dairy products (milk, yogurt). You can freely eat meat, fish, chicken, pasta. The reliability of the upper abdomen ultrasound scan, when it is performed by experienced physicians is close to the one of a Computing Tomography (CT)-scan  and of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) *

*R.A. Kane, H.E. Longmaid and P. Costello et al., Noninvasive imaging in patients with hepatic masses: A prospective comparison of ultrasound, CT and MR imaging

RSNA Scientific Program 1993

Ultrasound Scan of the Lower Abdomen
With this ultrasound scan, we examine the organs of the lower abdomen and principally: the urinary bladder, the uterus and the ovaries, as well as the prostate.

Urinary bladder

Papilloma, cystitis, stress cyst (which is caused by the enlargement of the prostate).

Uterus

Fibroids, endometrial examination.

Ovaries

Cysts

Fallopian tubes

The normal fallopian tubes do not appear but they are depicted if they are enlarged

Prostate

Hypertrophy of the prostate gland, urine residue in the examination after urination (proportional to the degree of hypertrophy). Further ultrasonographic examination is performed with the transvaginal ultrasound of the female internal genitalia and the transrectal ultrasound scan of the prostate. The preparation of the patient is necessary. The urinary bladder must be full during the examination. Thus, 2 hours before the examination you must drink 5-6 glasses of liquid (water, juice, etc.). You must not urinate before the examination.
Ultrasound Scan of the Cervix
The organs that are principally examined by the ultrasound scan of the cervix are the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, the salivary glands and the lymph nodes of the cervix.

Thyroid

Thyroid nodules, goitre, thyroiditis, neoplasm. The thyroid ultrasound scan can depict nodules at percentages that reach 100%.

Parathyroid Glands

Parathyroid glands adenomas

Salivary Glands (parotid, submandibular)

Inflammations, calculi. Neoplasia of the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands.

Lymph Nodes

Enlargement, shape, vascularization (inflammation and/or malignancy). Embryonic remnants can be also clearly depicted, such as thyroglossal cyst and brachial cysts. There is no need for preparation of the patient.

Ultrasound Scan of the Scrotum

The most frequent findings are:
  • Inflammations (epididymitis, orchitis)
  • Hematomas
  • Neoplasm​ 
With the color Doppler scan can be depicted with high precision the varicoceles (enlarged veins within the scrotum) and the vascularization of the testicles (torsion, inflammation). Cryptorchidism check in children. There is no need for preparation of the patient.

Peyronie’s Disease

Peyronie’s disease, due to unknown causes, is characterized by the growth of a plaque (it has nothing to do with the atherosclerotic plaque in arteries) on the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosum of the penis.
The plaque starts as a local inflammation and then develops to a scar.

The disease varies from mild to severe. In the severe cases there is pain and bending with shortening of the penis during erection due to the plaques that hinder the expansion of the corpora cavernosa. The result of this are difficulties during the sexual intercourse.

A recent research gives a disease rate of 3.2% among men of an age between 30-80 years. Its treatment is difficult and in some cases there is self-remission of the disease.

Soft Tissue Ultrasound Scan

It regards the muscles and the subcutaneous tissue.

The most frequent findings are: Hematomas, muscle and tendon rupture, tendinitis, baker cyst in the popliteal fossa, ganglion cysts principally in the wrist. The subcutaneous tissues are checked for lipomas, sebaceous cysts, as well as lymphoedema.
Triplex Vascular Ultrasound
With the color ultrasound scanning – Triplex, we can examine the blood flow through the blood vessels of the human body such as the aorta, the carotid arteries, the renal arteries, the veins and arteries of the lower and upper limbs.

Arteries

Check of atheromatous disease and of the degree of arterial stenosis (carotid arteries, aorta and arteries of the lower limbs). There is high reliability in the depiction of the quality of the atherosclerotic plaque in carotid arteries (plaque of low echogenicity, plaque ulceration) in order to define the risk of cerebral stroke for the patient. Detection of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta and assessment of its rupture risk, depending on its diameter

Veins

Insufficiency of the veins of the lower limbs, varicose veins, thrombosis. Furthermore, with the ultrasounds we can check the blood flow in neoplasias. The preparation of the patient is not necessary.
Breast Ultrasound

What is it?

A breast ultrasound scan is an additional examination, with which can be “interpreted” diagnostic problems in mammography.

With a head that is suitable for female breasts, the anatomical structure of the breast as well as of the underarm area is depicted without any radiation.

Cysts and fibroadenomas can be easily detected and depicted with the use of ultrasounds while small cancer tumors can escape detection.

Breast inflammations and abscesses can be reliably detected and depicted by ultrasounds, as well as the dilation of milk ducts, while in some cases papillomas in them can be detected and depicted.  

When is it recommended?

  • In dense breasts (with intense fibroglandular elements) where the detection rate of cancer is increased by 17% when it is combined with mammography
  • In case of a suspicious mammographic, non palpable mass
  • In case of a palpable mass
  • In case of tissue anarchy
  • In case of family history
  • In women under 35 years of age, that want to examine their breasts without receiving any radiation
  • For the determination in a high degree of the nature of a damage having the possibility of differential diagnosis of the simple cyst from compact type lesions
  • Also, every time that we wish to further examine a finding that has occurred by the clinical examination of mammography or even to confirm with a third examination, that our negative clinical examination and mammography are indeed negative and there are no findings in the ultrasound scan.

Is it dangerous?

Ultrasound scanning is not dangerous at all, since the patient does not receive any radiation. It can be applied at any age and can be repeated as many times as it is required.  

Can it replace mammography?

NO. Ultrasound scanning is performed as an additional examination to the clinical examination and mammography in women of over 40 years of age.

  • mammography detects 85% of the non palpable masses.
  • ultrasound scanning detects 35% of the non palpable masses.

Mammography plus ultrasound examination detects 95% of palpable cancers.

Principle that must be followed in the diagnosis of breast cancer:
In all symptomatic cases of patients of over 30 years of age there is a combination of mammography and ultrasound imaging of the breasts, while, in patients of under 30 years of age, first, ultrasound imaging is performed, and if we cannot come to a safe conclusion, the check is completed with mammography.

Elastography

Breast elastography is a recent development in breast ultrasound scanning, which permits the detection of malignant tumors with higher precision.

Elastography permits the assessment of the elasticity or hardness of the tissues that are examined during the ultrasound scanning.

Cancers present, in general, a higher hardness, therefore elastography can provide the necessary information so that breast biopsies can be reduced to the ones that are absolutely necessary.

The examination is performed during the ultrasound scan, when further examination of a finding is required. Then, small pressure is applied to the skin at the point of the lesion, as in the case of a palpation. In this way images of the lesions and damages are produced, having as purpose the mapping of  their elasticity with various colors that allow the quantitative evaluation of the elasticity of the tumors.
Breast elastography is a method that is simple, fast, absolutely painless, and cost-effective. You should never forget that through prevention, a woman can detect breast cancer at early stages when the possibility to treat it properly and successfully is 95%.